Astrophysics - The red giant sun & giant lie

Astrophysics - The red dwarf

Preface from Pierluigi Peruzzi

The theory of "red sun" which states that "the sun itself swells as time goes, then later becomes a red dwarf star", makes me laugh. Specifically that the sun, before it ends, still swoop up quickly the earth, appears very human to me; however, it is not objective and not physically true.

So I have made my own theory to red sun. Therefore, I am agreeing with the rest of the humankind: sooner or later, our sun become a red star. Only that the sequence is, for sure, not the same.

We must not forget that the first theory of the "red giant" emerged in the time stems where it was believed that the electrons around whirr in a ridiculous switchback about the atomic nucleus. Also, it is said from old books you could read that the electricity consisted of an unknown fluid.

1. Introduction

1.1. The gravity

First, to better explain, we need to deal with the gravitational force on the surface of a celestial body. In each "theory of red giant stars", there is gravitation and mass in the star. One good example is the planet earth.

General formula of gravitation:  

coefficient of gravity x mass
The earth for an example = 9,8m/s2:

(6.673 x 10-11m3/kg s2) x (5,954 x 1024kg)
6,37 x 106m x 6,37 x 106m

1.2. Example of two different ball-shaped celestial body

To better explain my theory, requires a very pronounced example of two different celestial bodies. One of the two celestial bodies has less diameter and less mass than the other, but has more gravity on its surface. This is important for my theory.

Here is an example calculation of 2 different ball-shaped celestial bodies:

Celestial body A: Celestial body B:
radius 1000 km radius 400 km
consists of pure water ice H2O consists of pure lead Pb
specific weight about 1.0 g/cm3 specific weight about 11.34 g/cm3
volume 4'188'790'204 km3 volume 268'082'573 km3
mass 4,18879 x 1021kg mass 3,040 x 1021kg

Gravity on the surface of
the big celestial body A:
=  0.28m/s2

Gravity on the surface of
the small celestial body B:
=  1.27m/s2

(6.673 x 10-11m3/kg s2) x (4,18879 x 1021kg)

10 x 106m x 10 x 106m

(6.673 x 10-11m3/kg s2) x (3,040 x 1021kg)

4 x 105m x 4 x 105m

Important: In this example has the smallest and lightest celestial body a much higher gravity on the surface as the larger one, because be more specific weight by far is higher!

2. My real theory

2.1. The phases of the shutdown of the sun
       or the life cycle of the yellow star:

Phase 1 yesterday
The sun is glarier. It is a yellow-hoarier star which is very hot and enhanced fusion activity.

sonne phase 1

Phase 2 today
Strong yellow sun that radiates the perfect temperature for the earth. It has a normal nuclear fusion. Hydrogen is consumed turning into Helium. This causes an increase of the specific weight.

sonne phase 2

Phase 3 tomorrow
Due to the nuclear fusion, the sun continuously loses light mass. At first, there will be no major changes.

sonne phase 3
Phase 4 the day after tomorrow
  • The sun has now consumed almost the entire "light mass" (hydrogen) and begins to turn red. In effect, the sun now consists of a heavier material which means that its specific gravity has increased, while the total mass of the sun has dwindled!
  • The force of attraction of the sun, outside it, in the space, decreases due to the lessen total mass of the sun.However, the attraction has increased on the surface of the sun!
  • The planets slip a little outside in the space, because the sun's force of attraction is decreased.
  • The activities of nuclear fusion have decreased, so the very high internal pressure of the celestial body also decreased. This means that the solar mass shrinks even more. The radius will be shorter. On the surface, the hydrogen gases lessen. Helium and other gases prevail and the gravity on the surface increases sharply.
  • This means that the residual gases on the surface are now recompressed because of 2 different factors:
  • the enhanced gravity on the surface, and
  • the remaining gas has a higher specific weight and this increase the pressure in the solar atmosphere.
  • sonne phase 4

    We could say that with the increased specific gravity that holds our sun, gravity on the surface is stronger. This must not put confusion to the effective gravitational attraction of the celestial body. That has fallen!

    Now our sun will be a red dwarf!

    Without having itself inflated and swallowing up any planet!

    We summarize

    The following factors speak against it of the extension of a star:

    The pressure inside a star decreases gradually. This means that the star shrinks step by step and the specific gravity increases. Consequently, the gravity on the surface, slowly increasing, also the solar atmosphere sucks. The diameter of the visible star shrinks so quickly.

    H becomes He. This means that the hydrogen becomes helium. Helium has an atomic weight 4 times more hydrogen. Therefore the sun is now even more restricted, since helium requires less space as hydrogen. Consequently the specific gravity of the star increases rapidly. This is another factor that increases the gravity on the surface of the star.

    The overall temperature of the Sun is reduced. Consequently, all the matter of the star shrinks an additional factor. Anyone knows that if the temperature rises and widen all the elements if the temperature is reduced, then the items will shrink. This also causes an increase in specific gravity. What follows as we have already exposed.

    The surface temperature of the Sun is reduced over time. From now approx. 7,000 C will be reduced to approx. 5,000 C. Maybe even less. Even here, everyone knows that the gas in case of increase of temperature, the pressure increase and in case of reduction of temperature, the pressure decreases. This means that the solar atmosphere shrinks as a further factor even more. Unfortunately, no expansions.

    Addendum from November 5, 2009

    Into discussion forums I had an indoctrination, that after the internal nuclear fusion (hydrogen is merging into helium), a nuclear fusion will occur in the outer rind of the star.

    I had to again laugh:
  • Because the gravity of a star in the outer rind will amount to approximately 20 to 40 m/s2.
    Therefore, it can not develop enough pressure to start a new nuclear fusion;
  • In addition, because the hydrogen in the outer rind would not have to merge hydrogen in main sequence. Why only hereafter? Perhaps he waited to give our physical reason?
  • We must not forget that a star is in the form of liquids or gases. This means that all the matter of a star is always shuffled in and out.

    Well then, allow me to ask a last question:
    Why JOVE hasn't swallowed up IO, as he was in the phase of red sun?